Un viejo aforismo explica que: «la justicia militar es a la justicia como la música militar es a la música». Con lo cual hace un agravio a grandes compositores que no dudaron en poner en aire de marcha algunas de sus obras. El «Coro de los Soldados» del «Fausto» de Gounod, la «Marcha Triunfal» de la «Aida» de Verdi, la alegre fanfarria de los soldados en «La Boheme» de Puccini, la farandole de «L’Arlesienne» de Bizet y la «Marcha Eslava» de Tchaikovski son algunas de las que vienen a la mente sin mucho esfuerzo. Ahora, si la segunda parte de la proposición se refiere a la ejecución de dicha música por las bandas militares nuestras, es otra cosa. Quizá se pudiera decir algo parecido a lo expuesto en la primera parte de la proposición, lo referido a la justicia militar: porque el problema no está en los códigos, la doctrina ni la jurisprudencia acerca de esa materia, sino en sus «ejecutantes» —que, por lo que vemos últimamente, más bien son «ejecutores», en la única acepción que trae el mataburros.

Ejemplo palmario de lo que afirmo al final del párrafo anterior son las injusticias que se están cometiendo en Venezuela, pero con especial reciedumbre en Carabobo, en un par de tribunales militares que no existían en este estado hasta hace pocos días. Las decisiones de procesar a civiles por el «delito» de hacer uso de su derecho a manifestarse pacíficamente ya es un abuso de poder, pero mandarlos a prisiones fuera de la jurisdicción —decisión que, me imagino, toman con fruición— no puede tener justificación alguna. Y tener apersogados —por días, sin las debidas condiciones de habitabilidad, aseo y alimentación— a decenas de individuos mientras los mandan llevar a la «augusta» presencia de sus juzgadores, raya en lo criminal. Es una bastarda utilización de la justicia militar como macana para golpear al adversario político —a quien ellos catalogan como «enemigo».

La que hasta ahora era «la mejor constitución del mundo» —porque pareciera que ya no les sirve más— expresa en su Art. 261 que la «comisión de delitos comunes, (…) serán juzgados por los tribunales ordinarios». Y que «la competencia de los tribunales militares se limita a delitos de naturaleza militar». Eso, los jueces lo saben hasta la saciedad, pero se hacen los locos porque —en lo que es la principal aberración de la justicia militar— reciben órdenes de sus superiores jerárquicos; en cuyo tope está el ilegítimo, quien no tiene escrúpulo alguno y necesita abusar para poder seguir «gozando de las mieles del poder». Nada más que por eso, una de las primeras cosas que deba hacer la Asamblea Nacional cuando se reestablezca el Estado de Derecho en el país, es reformar el Código Orgánico de Justicia Militar y eliminar esa indebida injerencia jerárquica en la toma de decisiones de los jueces militares —estos, al igual que sus contrapartes civiles debiesen tener libertad a la hora de sentenciar—, y para que no se le utilice más como panacea a la hora de resolver problemas de orden público.

Entre los jurisperitos sensatos de todo el mundo no hay dudas: los hechos por lo que se está juzgando a centenares de personas en Venezuela NO son delitos; mucho menos, delitos de naturaleza militar. Sirve Un ejemplo sencillo para explicar lo que está sucediendo. Pongamos que a un joven que manifestaba solo y sin armas en una esquina lo llevan a presencia de un fiscal militar y después ante un juez; y que estos, basados en la sola información verbal de los captores, inician un proceso y lo imputan de «rebelión» sin importarle —o sin saber, porque ya ustedes saben cómo son escogidos— que los tratadistas más acertados explican que la rebelión, por antonomasia, la cometen quienes, en grupo, se alzan en armas. O sea, estar armado y actuar en compañía de otros son requisitos sine qua non. Otros exegetas de esta materia exigen más para que se configure el delito de rebelión: que quienes participen lo hagan desde unidades militares. Y para mayor ensañamiento, le añaden «ataque al centinela» aunque el pobre muchacho ni siquiera alzó una mano para defenderse. Que es algo que no puede configurarse en las actuaciones de los cuerpos militares que actúan en materia de orden público. Nunca. Y me explico de seguidas.

Lo referido al mantenimiento y preservación del orden público aparece en el capítulo destinado a «los órganos de seguridad ciudadana», uno distinto del referido a «la Fuerza Armada Nacional». A estas no les tipifica esa función; solo a la Guardia Nacional (sin más adjetivos) le asigna potestad para actuar en «el mantenimiento del orden interno», que es distinto. Pero, si por aquello de la discrecionalidad, un jefe decide entender in extenso esa atribución y ordena a la Guardia esa misión, esta solo actúa en forma subsidiaria a la policía y queda fuera de la jurisdicción militar. Estará realizando una función civil y deberá actuar por las mismas leyes ordinarias que la policía administrativa general. Vale decir, que en el caso de que se presuma una violación a las normas, los detenidos deberán ser presentados ante fiscales ordinarios y estos referirán dichos casos a los tribunales ordinarios.

Según el vetusto Cabanellas, un centinela es «el soldado que custodia el puesto que se le confía». En otras palabras, es un uniformado que vigila en una instalación militar o en un puesto de combate. Nunca podrá ser «centinela» quien es destacado a cumplir una función pública distinta al servicio militar. No puede alegar fuero militar; y si comete un delito en esa misión, será juzgado por tribunales ordinarios. Entonces, ¿cómo es que las personas detenidas por él pueden ser juzgadas por tribunales militares? Una vez más, el inefable Padrino mete la bota cuando opina que se puede juzgar militarmente a un ciudadano por presuntos delitos, aunque sean cometidos en contra de militares o sus instalaciones. ¿O será que las desoye y hace lo que le viene en gana porque cree que los soles le otorgan patente de corso?…

Sesquipedalia

Humberto Seijas Pittaluga -15-5-2017

http://www.noticiasdevenezuela.org/2017/05/15/la-injusticia-militar/

[email protected]

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