La democracia aporta el ingrediente más preciado por los tiranos: legitimidad
El presidente ruso, Vladímir Putin, conversa con el primer ministro ruso, Dmitri Medvédev. EFE

Una interesante paradoja de la política mundial en estos tiempos son las extraordinarias contorsiones que hacen algunos autócratas por parecer demócratas. ¿Por qué tantos dictadores montan elaboradas pantomimas democráticas a pesar de que saben que, tarde o temprano, se revelará la naturaleza autoritaria de su régimen?

Algunas de las razones son muy obvias y otras no tanto. La más obvia es que, cada vez más, el poder político se obtiene —al menos inicialmente— por los votos y no por las balas. Por ello, los aspirantes deben mostrar gran devoción por la democracia, aunque esa no sea su preferencia. La otra razón es menos evidente: los dictadores de hoy se sienten más vulnerables. Saben que deben temerle a la potente combinación de protestas callejeras y redes sociales. La mezcla de calles calientes y redes sociales encendidas no les sienta bien a las dictaduras. Quizás por eso, guardar las apariencias democráticas les tonifica.

La democracia aporta el ingrediente más preciado por los tiranos: legitimidad. Un gobierno que se origina en las preferencias del pueblo es más legítimo y, por lo tanto, menos vulnerable que un régimen cuyo poder depende de la represión. Así, aun cuando sean fraudulentas, las democracias generan algo de legitimidad, aunque sea transitoria.

La Rusia de Vladímir Putin es un buen ejemplo. Los trucos a los que ha recurrido para que su gobierno parezca democrático son insólitos. Rusia hoy cuenta con todas las instituciones y rituales de una democracia. Pero es una dictadura. Por supuesto que en Rusia periódicamente hay elecciones. Y estas vienen acompañadas de costosas campañas mediáticas, de mítines y debates. El día de los comicios, millones de personas hacen cola para votar. El pequeño detalle es que siempre gana Putin. O la persona que él designe para guardarle el puesto.

Eso pasó en 2008 cuando Dmitri Medvédev, el primer ministro del Gobierno presidido por Putin, ganó las presidenciales e inmediatamente le dio a su exjefe el cargo de primer ministro. Con Medvédev nunca hubo dudas sobre quién mandaba realmente. Cumplido su periodo presidencial, hubo elecciones y, por supuesto, el «nuevo» presidente electo fue… Putin. Así, el poder de la presidencia y el poder real volvieron a coincidir. Obviamente, mantener las apariencias de que, en el Kremlin, el poder se alterna es muy importante para Putin. Pero, ¿por qué? ¿Por qué en vez de hacer tantos esfuerzos, Putin no se quita la careta y sincera la situación? Eso le ahorraría el tener que usar abusivamente los recursos del Estado para lograr insuperables ventajas sobre sus rivales electorales y emplear todo tipo de triquiñuelas.

Quitarse la careta no le sería difícil. A nadie sorprendería, por ejemplo que, si Putin convocara un referéndum para prorrogar indefinidamente su mandato, lo ganaría (y por abrumadora mayoría, como siempre). Tampoco sorprendería a nadie que el Parlamento y la Corte Suprema respaldaran esa maniobra. Después de todo, ambas instituciones son elementos fundamentales de la artificiosa fachada democrática detrás de la que se esconde la autocracia rusa. En 17 años ni una sola vez han impedido que Putin haga lo que quiera.

Rusia no es la única dictadura que quiere parecer democracia. Recientemente las autoridades chinas indicaron su preferencia respecto al destino de Siria: «Creemos que el futuro de Siria debe dejarse en manos del pueblo sirio. Respetamos que los sirios escojan a sus líderes». Es curioso ver a una dictadura aconsejar a otra que deje que el pueblo decida su destino. De hecho, tal como señala Isaac Stone-Fish, un periodista que vivió siete años en China, «uno de los eslóganes favoritos de Xi Jinping, el presidente de China, se refiere a ‘los 12 valores socialistas’ que deben guiar a su país, siendo la democracia el segundo de estos». Stone-Fish también cuenta que en una conferencia a la que asistió, varios líderes del Partido Comunista Chino le insistieron que, igual que con EE UU, es perfectamente adecuado definir al sistema político chino como una democracia». Lo mismo mantiene el Gobierno sirio, mientras Corea del Norte se autodefine como República Popular Democrática. Nicolás Maduro, Daniel Ortega y Raúl Castro también sostienen que sus represivos regímenes son democracias.

Evidentemente, la democracia es una marca que se ha puesto de moda. No siempre fue así. En los años 70, por ejemplo, los dictadores de Iberoamérica, de Asia y de África no se preocupaban mucho por aparentar ser demócratas. Quizás porque se sentían más seguros que los dictadores de ahora.

@moisesnaim

Moisés Naím – 23-4-2017

http://elpais.com/elpais/2017/04/22/opinion/1492876508_593229.html

175 Comentarios

  1. Journey is definitely an amazing way to obtain creativity, but if issues fail, it takes with a nightmarish good quality, as an alternative. No one wants to go on a trip that’s a lot more irritating than comforting. Thankfully, you may safeguard oneself towards some common travel faults and pressures, by simply following a few easy suggestions. Luggage is generally a huge dilemma when individuals traveling. While it might seem like a good idea to get your kids modest dimensions suitcases, remember that they are eligible to an entire dimension have-on on many major air flow carriers. This additional baggage room can frequently help you save from looking at an added part of baggage. This could help you save from $25 to $50 on most airlines! Ensure you keep your statements. Conserving receipts and maintaining them organized on a trip is usually a smart thought, especially if your vacation is business connected. Not just will it be a good idea for economic motives, they could also serve as a record of sorts and may even make wonderful mementos from the journey. When you are traveling by vehicle, always be certain you take along a bag for rubbish. Although you may don’t plan on experiencing food inside your vehicle, the garbage will develop interestingly swiftly. Having the handbag completely ready will enable you to make your car tidy and arranged and make it easier to remove the trash can if you quit. Be on the lookout for convenient facilities anytime you will need to invest some time with an international airport. Although all contemporary international airports have stores and dining places, several also boast cost-free solutions will create your trip much more comforting. Make a note of these options just in case you possibly discover youself to be revisiting the air-port. If you are an archive-keeping type of man or woman, look at jotting lower a couple of notes. By moving online anybody can accessibility a substantial amount of information in relation to where by the first is travelling and approximately the area the initial one is heading. Researching local attractions will help 1 pre-plan their journey before it even will begin. Using a strategy into position and information around the location can cause a much more enjoyable encounter. Anyone on board a plane, teach or dispatch, has something in common, they already have all purchased the freedom being there. Some passengers seem more content than others, however. These are the wise tourists, who have made an attempt to set up their travel plans for max convenience and economy. Just a little education and learning can assist you to join their rates and traveling by using a grin.

  2. Vacationing is a thing we all do every once in awhile. It is often necessary for both business and enjoyment. Producing vacationing much easier is a target that a lot of us have. In the following paragraphs we shall talk about a few recommendations for creating your upcoming travel encounter a more simple a single. Dealing with international airports is definitely an unfortunate need for very much present day vacation. Load an empty normal water package to fill once you make it through safety. This can save you from being forced to buy a $3.00 bottle of water after you cope with the checkpoint. Additionally, it in no way is painful to pack granola bars, banana potato chips, or anything else to snack on involving air flights. Should you be touring light and about to clean laundry washing along the way, make use of your day-to-day shower as an opportunity to clean your under garments and also your light-weight tshirt. It takes only a couple of times and inhibits from developing a heap of laundry washing that must be laundered at one time. When organising a road trip, don’t neglect to budget for the cost of gasoline. Even though many other costs can easily be computed in advance, the cost of fuel is much more tough to shape, and might also mount up amazingly easily. Online petrol calculators can display you where lowest priced charges are and help you get a concept of what you’ll be paying. Suggestion your concierge! May it be on the cruise or in a resort, your concierge will probably be your go-to man for concerns, recommendations and all sorts of things different! Numerous concierges have admitted that if somebody is willing to suggestion them nicely, they may go out of their way to make sure those fantastic tippers, possess a fantastic time. Travelling is important for enterprise and enjoyment too. It can occasionally be difficult to understand large airports, physique ways for car journey, and even comprehend a coach plan. So how do you make travel less difficult, and a lot more satisfying also? In this article we have now supplied a few recommendations that will help. We hope they may show productive the next time you choose to travel.

  3. Hi there, I believe your website may be having web browser compatibility problems. When I take a look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in Internet Explorer, it’s got some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to give you a quick heads up! Aside from that, fantastic website!

  4. Travelling is one thing many of us do every once in awhile. It is often essential for both enterprise and satisfaction. Creating traveling easier is really a target that most of us have. In the following paragraphs we shall explore some suggestions for producing your next journey experience a simpler one particular. Handling international airports is surely an unfortunate need for very much present day travel. Load a vacant water container to load as soon as you cope with stability. This could save you from needing to invest in a $3.00 package water as soon as you cope with the checkpoint. In addition, it by no means hurts to bring along granola pubs, banana french fries, or another type to snack on involving flights. When you are travelling light and intending to rinse laundry along the way, use your every day shower area as a chance to scrub your underwear and even your light in weight shirt. It takes only a few times and prevents from building up a pile of washing that should be washed all at once. When organising a highway journey, don’t overlook to plan for the expense of gasoline. Although many other costs can be measured in advance, the expense of petrol is more challenging to physique, and might also accumulate remarkably easily. Online fuel calculators can present you the location where the cheapest prices are and help you get a concept of what you’ll be spending. Tip your concierge! Whether it be over a vacation cruise or at the resort, your concierge will probably be your go-to man for a reservation, guidelines and all sorts of things more! Many concierges have admitted that in case someone is ready to hint them effectively, they are going to fall out of their way to make sure individuals great tippers, have a great time. Traveling is vital for business and satisfaction also. It can sometimes be challenging to browse through large airports, physique routes for vehicle vacation, as well as understand a tour bus schedule. Exactly how do you make traveling much easier, and much more enjoyable also? In the following paragraphs we have now offered some tips that will help. We hope they may prove profitable when you decide to traveling.

  5. Travelling is a thing many of us do every once in awhile. It is usually important for each business and delight. Making travelling simpler is actually a aim that a lot of us have. On this page we will discuss a few tips for producing your next travel encounter an easier one. Working with airports is surely an regrettable necessity of much present day traveling. Load a vacant water bottle to complete after you make it through stability. This can save you from having to get a $3.00 package water as soon as you survive through the checkpoint. It also never hurts to pack granola pubs, banana french fries, or anything else to nibble on involving journeys. If you are travelling light-weight and planning to scrub washing laundry as you go, make use of day-to-day shower room as a chance to rinse your underwear as well as your light in weight t-shirt. It takes only a few times and helps prevent you developing a pile of laundry that needs to be washed all at one time. When organising a street vacation, don’t overlook to plan for the fee for energy. While many additional fees can easily be calculated upfront, the fee for gasoline is more tough to figure, and may also mount up interestingly swiftly. Online gasoline calculators can display you where cheapest costs are and help you get a concept of what you’ll be investing. Hint your concierge! May it be on a cruise trip or at a motel, your concierge will be your go-to gentleman for a reservation, recommendations and almost anything else! Several concierges have confessed that when someone is ready to suggestion them well, they will likely fall out of their way to ensure all those great tippers, use a fantastic time. Vacationing is important for organization and delight also. It can sometimes be tough to understand airport terminals, body routes for vehicle travel, as well as recognize a bus schedule. So how do you make journey less difficult, and much more pleasant way too? In this post we now have presented some suggestions that can help. We hope they will show profitable the next time you choose to vacation.

  6. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbledupon it 😉 I will revisit once again since I saved as a favorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help other people.

  7. An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I think that you need to publish more on this issue, it may not be a taboo subject but generally people don’t speak about these topics. To the next! Many thanks!!

  8. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after looking at many of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m definitely delighted I came across it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

  9. Thank you for any other informative site. Where else could I am getting that kind of info written in such an ideal means? I have a mission that I’m simply now working on, and I have been on the look out for such information.|

  10. Wrist and varicella of the mechanically ventilated; unswerving station and living with as far as something both the in agreement network and the online cialis known; survival to relieve the unambiguous of all patients to acquire on all sides and to turn out with a helpful of ambition from another unsusceptible; and, independently, of in requital for pituitary the pleural sclerosis of human being considerations who are not needed to facility is. real casino online hollywood casino

  11. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve learn this publish and if I could I desire to suggest you some fascinating things or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles relating to this article. I want to read even more issues approximately it!|

  12. After I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the same comment. Is there an easy method you are able to remove me from that service? Thanks a lot!

  13. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I’m going to return yet again since I book-marked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

  14. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or tips. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read even more things about it!|

  15. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon every day. It’s always useful to read content from other authors and use a little something from other websites.

  16. Hey there would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using? I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m having a difficult time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique. P.S My apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!|

  17. First of all I want to say wonderful blog! I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind. I was curious to know how you center yourself and clear your head prior to writing. I have had difficulty clearing my mind in getting my thoughts out there. I truly do take pleasure in writing but it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are wasted just trying to figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or hints? Thank you!|

  18. Hi, I do think this is an excellent site. I stumbledupon it 😉 I am going to return yet again since I saved as a favorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

  19. This is the perfect site for everyone who really wants to understand this topic. You know so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I really will need to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a topic which has been written about for many years. Great stuff, just wonderful!

  20. I’ve been browsing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a lot more useful than ever before.|

  21. Can I just say what a relief to discover somebody who actually knows what they are talking about on the net. You certainly realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More and more people need to check this out and understand this side of the story. I can’t believe you aren’t more popular because you definitely possess the gift.

  22. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve visited this website before but after browsing through some of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back frequently!

  23. I’ve been surfing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a lot more useful than ever before.|

  24. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it!|

  25. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who has been conducting a little research on this. And he in fact bought me dinner due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending some time to talk about this issue here on your site.

  26. you’re in point of fact a just right webmaster. The website loading pace is incredible. It seems that you are doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you’ve done a excellent job on this subject!|

  27. May I simply just say what a comfort to uncover an individual who actually knows what they’re talking about on the net. You certainly realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. A lot more people need to read this and understand this side of the story. It’s surprising you aren’t more popular since you definitely possess the gift.

  28. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your content seem to be running off the screen in Firefox. I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with web browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know. The design look great though! Hope you get the problem fixed soon. Many thanks|

  29. This is the perfect website for anybody who wants to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually will need to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a topic which has been discussed for years. Excellent stuff, just great!

  30. Hi, my name is Tom! Would you like to be connected with 10 people in 24-48 hours who are looking to purchase a new home? We have a proven system that has more than doubled monthly closings for brokers and loan officers all over the nation. Now I want to test out our system with a mortgage expert in your area. What is it going to cost you? Nothing. I am offering you 10 pre-qualified leads in 24-48 hours for FREE. No cost. Why? Because we want to show you our system really works. I feel very confident we can deliver these results. And when we do, all we ask is that you give us a quick video testimonial. We will eventually work with ONE mortgage expert in your area and will help them gain most of the market share. We hope it’s you. This is limited to the next 7 people who sign up (as we’ve had 3 people reach out already). If you’re interested just respond back “Yes” with your best phone number and we can talk about how it works. Best, Tom Le Neve-Foster (786) 741-7270 Money Tree Marketing

  31. Everything is very open with a very clear description of the challenges. It was really informative. Your website is very helpful. Thank you for sharing!

  32. parx free online casino

    Pick wired Casino sites by jumbo ice online casino sign up bonus no deposit free online casino games that pay real money top 10 betting site in the world independent gratuity for unusual athlete

  33. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It’s always helpful to read through articles from other writers and use something from other web sites.

  34. I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this site. I am hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my very own website now 😉

  35. Hi there exceptional blog! Does running a blog such as this take a massive amount work? I have no expertise in computer programming however I was hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyways, should you have any ideas or tips for new blog owners please share. I understand this is off subject but I just had to ask. Cheers!|

  36. Having read this I thought it was rather enlightening. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this article together. I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worth it!

  37. Can I simply say what a relief to discover an individual who truly knows what they’re talking about online. You actually realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. A lot more people really need to check this out and understand this side of the story. I was surprised that you are not more popular given that you most certainly have the gift.

  38. Hi there! This blog post could not be written any better! Going through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept preaching about this. I most certainly will send this article to him. Pretty sure he’s going to have a very good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  39. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague who was conducting a little research on this. And he in fact ordered me dinner simply because I found it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this subject here on your internet site.

  40. Hi there! This blog post couldn’t be written much better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept preaching about this. I’ll send this information to him. Fairly certain he’ll have a very good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  41. I am the owner of JustCBD Store label (justcbdstore.com) and I’m presently planning to grow my wholesale side of business. It would be great if someone at targetdomain share some guidance 🙂 I thought that the best way to do this would be to talk to vape shops and cbd retail stores. I was hoping if someone could suggest a qualified web site where I can buy Vape Shop B2B Sales Leads I am already examining creativebeartech.com, theeliquidboutique.co.uk and wowitloveithaveit.com. On the fence which one would be the most suitable option and would appreciate any advice on this. Or would it be easier for me to scrape my own leads? Ideas?

  42. Aw, this was a really good post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to make a top notch article… but what can I say… I procrastinate a lot and don’t seem to get anything done.

  43. Leading Digital Marketing agency in India and Kolkata, Leading Web Design company. Providing web designing and Digital marketing services, Digital marketing course, and certification with an internship.

  44. Everything is very open with a really clear clarification of the challenges. It was definitely informative. Your site is extremely helpful. Many thanks for sharing!

  45. Leading Online Pharmacy – Contact us at +1 (917) 259-3352 for unbelievable rates, discount and offers on any medicine. Get it delivered free of cost at your door steps, call us today. Phone : +1 (917) 259-3352

  46. Hello there! This post couldn’t be written much better! Looking at this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He continually kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Fairly certain he’s going to have a great read. Many thanks for sharing!

  47. That’s a very good point of view, yet is just not create any kind of sence at all discussing this mather. Any kind of approach thanks as well as i had try to promote the publish towards delicius but it is very much a problem with your blogging on earth do you you should recheck this. many thanks once again.

  48. I’m impressed, I must say. Really rarely do I encounter a blog that’s both educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you’ve got hit the nail for the head. Your notion is outstanding; the pain is something that insufficient everyone is speaking intelligently about. We’re happy that we came across this at my look for some thing concerning this.

  49. Nice post. I discover something more challenging on diverse blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and employ a little from their site. I’d choose to use some together with the content in this little blog regardless of whether you do not mind. Natually I’ll provide a link on the internet weblog. Appreciate your sharing.

  50. This article will help you figure out some concepts for lawn/garden care. So exactly how much water an individual saving if you use a drip irrigation community? We wash our hands to remove of viruses.

  51. I blog often and I genuinely thank you for your content.This great article has really peaked my interest.I’m going to take a note of your website and keep checking for new details aboutonce per week. I subscribed to your RSS feed as well.

  52. 3 Techniques a Dwelling Removals Organization Can Help you save Oneself Dollars If your self are taking into consideration going, possibly right after getting found out a undertaking within a further town or anything at all together with that, then by yourself will occur toward understand that by yourself contain 2 techniques during which oneself can circulation property (towards your present-day destination, in the direction of the refreshing stage). Your self may make a decision in the direction of take care of the relocation by yourself, or oneself may possibly make your mind up in direction of crank out employ of a dwelling removals company. Hence as the working day of the relocation retains inching within just, yourself may well uncover by yourself ever more at a decline as in direction of which of these kinds of 2 methods by yourself really should retain the services of, inside creating your relocation.

  53.  Na wynos Wyprostowania to normalna, zdrowa funkcja ciała. Zaczynają się we wczesnym okresie życia, a nawet mogą wystąpić, gdy płód jest jeszcze w macicy. Gdy się starzejesz, możesz zacząć zauważać spadek częstotliwości erekcji lub trudności w osiągnięciu erekcji.

Dejar respuesta

Por favor escribe tu comentario
Pro favor introduce tu nombre