FOTO: ANDREA HERNÁNDEZ

@SebastianaB

La Guardia Nacional Bolivariana cumple 40 días, casi sin respiro, de estar en la calle enfrentando manifestaciones, repartiendo agua, gas lacrimógeno, perdigones y golpes. Recibiendo piedras, bombas molotov, excrementos y hasta algunas balas. Desde que el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ) emitiera las sentencias atribuyéndose las funciones de la Asamblea Nacional y dejando sin inmunidad a los parlamentarios, la violencia en las calles no ha cesado, ni siquiera después que el TSJ rectificara.

Se han aplicado medidas extremas, incluso el Plan Guaicaipuro, antiguo Plan Ávila, de manera exclusiva y solo en el estado Carabobo, con la participación del Ejército, único lugar en el que ha actuado ese componente. En todo el país el control de las manifestaciones lo ha tenido la Guardia Nacional.

La revolución bolivariana tiene hitos que han colocado a los militares en primer plano, aun cuando algunos son tan bochornosos como los del golpe del 11 de abril. Pero en esos escenarios no había, entre la población civil, una diferencia del componente militar que actuaba. Ha bastado más de un mes de manifestaciones contra el gobierno para que la Guardia Nacional sea el más odiado de los componentes, el que más conflictos internos exhibe, el que debe cargar con el rechazo exasperado de la población.

Desde que el general José Eleazar López Contreras fundara la Guardia Nacional, el 4 de agosto de 1937, han pasado por sus filas honorables y destacados oficiales, algunos por su heroísmo, por su honestidad y por su disciplina. Ha tenido feos lunares en su historia. En estos momentos tiene amenazas, morales, éticas y de formación.

Tiene años cargando con un progresivo desprestigio esencialmente por su actuación en las zonas de fronteras, el cobro de dinero a contrabandistas y por su feo ejercicio en la retención injustificada de productos en las alcabalas del país o el cobro de «ayudas».

La gente ya no recuerda o prefiere no recordar hechos relevantes de la Guardia Nacional en el control del orden público, en actividades antisecuestro que ningún otro componente ha ejercido con tanta eficacia. El roce con la población civil la fue desgastando, la desdibujó hasta reducirla a una imagen de ente opresor y corrupto.

El creador de la Guardia Nacional, el general Eleazar López Contreras, es considerado en la historia de Venezuela como un presidente de la República con gran sensibilidad democrática, que lo diferencia de la dictadura, ya que a la muerte del general Juan Vicente Gómez, en su condición de ministro de Guerra y Marina, asume el poder y ese día ordena la libertad de todos los presos políticos e invita a los exiliados a regresar al país.

Llegó 2017

Si bien es cierto que el año 2014 representó una prueba de fuego para la Guardia Nacional, en el marco de las llamadas guarimbas, que tienen en zonas del este de Caracas, algunas ciudades del interior pero principalmente en el Táchira, el escenario más difícil de controlar, también lo es que la habilidad demostrada por el entonces ministro del Interior y justicia, el Mayor General (Ej) Miguel Rodríguez Torres y la actuación del General Antonio Benavides Torres Director de Operaciones de la GNB, permitió que el presidente Nicolás Maduro superara el que era el momento más álgido durante su gobierno, hasta ahora.

La Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana ha sido duramente golpeada en su imagen ante la población civil. Pero es la Guardia la que ha cargado sobre sus hombros el mayor de los desprestigios, que ha ido en avance hasta ser odiada profundamente.

Los manifestantes, reprimidos en las protestas; la sociedad civil que censura con dureza; los medios de comunicación que señalan a los responsables de lanzar bombas lacrimógenas, golpear a quienes lanzan piedras o marchan contra el Gobierno, no señalan al Ejército, a la Armada, a la Fuerza Aérea o a la añadida Milicia Bolivariana. El peso del odio lo recibe la Guardia Nacional.

Los símbolos de dicho componente son identificados claramente por la población. Sus integrantes son señalados sin ningún tipo de piedad. Las tanquetas la distinguen. La ballena lanza agua es asumida como parte de la Guardia Nacional. Los robocops, como llaman a los guardias que usan la indumentaria exigida para salir contra las manifestaciones, es otra de sus características.

El más crudo y violento escenario contra el gobierno de Nicolás Maduro es el que se vive en estos momentos. Han pasado las semanas y los manifestantes no se cansan. Todos los días, y simultáneamente, hay protestas en diferentes partes del país.

Los guardias, que ya venían enfrentando una manifestación tras otra, reciben la orden de detener, el 19 de abril, quizás la marcha más grande que haya sucedido en Caracas y en muchos rincones del interior del país. La rebelde Táchira del 2014, la rebelión de los gochos, como llamaron a la guarimba, esta vez cedió paso. Valencia ha sido la ciudad del interior del país que con mayor fuerza ha salido a la calle, seguida de Barquisimeto y Maracaibo.

Los opositores al gobierno, sin distingo, sin color, con o sin Mesa de la Unidad, avanzaron hasta la columna de uniformados verdes, de los robocops con sus ballenas y tanquetas. Aquella no parecía una lucha de hombres, la fuerza con la que guardias y opositores se enfrentaron fue animal. Huesos rotos, sangre que chorreaba, ancianos y niños que se ahogaban ante la inútil intención de la Guardia de tratar de frenar la marcha con cientos de bombas lacrimógenas. La enorme nube de gases reprimió y empujo a los manifestantes.

No hubo descanso. Los guardias que esperaban que en los días siguientes pudieran ser relevados, sólo fueron trasladados de un sitio a otro del país. A veces comiendo mal, otras durmiendo en el piso, algunos heridos e incluso al menos un muerto, en San Antonio, cerca de Los Teques.

Pero cada día la violencia aumentó, estalló en muchos sitios. Vinieron los muertos. Los guardias llevan día tras día de combate, ante manifestantes que no se rinden, algunos marchando pacíficamente, otros con inusitada violencia. Y a las manifestaciones se le sumaron los saqueos, que se han extendido a varios estados.

La Guardia se fue resintiendo, afloraron las decisiones de varios de sus militares de negarse a salir a enfrentar marchas. Quienes tienen más años en la institución decidieron que no saldrían. Varios son arrestados por negarse a obedecer, pero el número crece por lo que decidieron sustituir a los más veteranos por aquellos que apenas se están estrenando, los «nuevos» como les dicen a los recién llegados en la FANB.

Malas experiencias

La crisis interna de la Guardia Nacional no afecta solo a los militares de bajo rango. En el caso de Valencia ya van dos generales sacrificados por la desmedida ola de protestas, pacíficas y violentas, detenidos, muertos y saqueos en viviendas y negocios.

Apenas tenía seis días en el cargo como director de la Policía Nacional Bolivariana, y el general de Brigada (GNB) Carlos Alfredo Pérez Ampueda dirige una Unidad Operativa de la GNB, adscrita al Comando de la 41 de la Guardia, y Policía Nacional, con la cual fueron allanadas las instalaciones de la Universidad de Carabobo. Las autoridades universitarias, el gobernador Francisco Ameliach y el Defensor del Pueblo solicitaron que se investigara el hecho.

El comandante general de la Guardia Nacional, el mayor general Benavides Torres informó que los funcionarios involucrados están a órdenes de la Inspectoría del componente. Después se supo que fueron destituidos 30 funcionarios militares. Pérez Ampueda fue sustituido por el general (GNB) Nelson José Morales Guitian.

No alcanzó a cumplir 15 días en el cargo, cuando el huracán de las manifestaciones también sacó del cargo al general Morales Guitian. No hubo explicación. Subalternos aseguran que el alto oficial, cuando empezaron los saqueos más fuertes en Carabobo, no salió de su oficina y cuando su Jefe de Estado Mayor, coronel Jonás Páez Cabrera pretendió salir a la calle con los guardias, el general Morales no se lo habría permitido.

Al día siguiente se presentó a Carabobo el comandante general de la GNB y destituyó a Morales por el general Juvenal Fernández.

La población civil poco percibe que en la Guardia Nacional se ha ido dando una transformación del radicalismo. Algunos se han declarado y asumen que defenderán a la revolución; otros, ya no quieren acompañar esa misión. La cantidad de guardias que han dejado de presentarse a sus comandos, crece.

«No voy a regresar, prefiero que me declaren desertor y me metan preso», dice un joven guardia.

Jóvenes y ancianas se han parado frente a la columna de guardias. Hay quienes los han insultado. Otras los han abrazado. También están las que le han hablado maternalmente.

Los días han pasado y los guardias cargan en sus hombros el terrible odio de parte importante de la sociedad, la que se opone al gobierno de turno. La otra parte, los afectos al gobierno, han guardado silencio, porque en el fondo tampoco creen en la GNB.

Queniquea es un pequeño pueblo, y no es exageración decir que es de dos calles. Está enclavado entre montañas del Táchira, al cual se llega a través de una serpenteada carretera a unas horas de San Cristóbal. Ahí nació López Contreras. Es lógico suponer que la Guardia Nacional siempre tuvo allí un trato preferencial como hija del otrora presidente y general. Hace unos días la comunidad protestaba contra el Gobierno, pero cuando vieron que la Guardia se acercaba le gritaron consignas denigrantes, casi les caen a golpes y los militares se fueron del lugar entre asombrados y abochornados.

A la Guardia Nacional ya le está pegando el odio.

Sebastiana Barráez – 9-5-2017

http://elestimulo.com/blog/a-la-guardia-nacional-de-venezuela-ya-le-esta-pegando-el-odio/


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