–Señora, ¿qué le pediría a la Alcaldía?

–Que nos asfalten la calle, porque está llena de huecos.

PSICOLOGÍA DE LAS MASAS

La respuesta desconcertó a M.J. Cartea.  Estaban en un barrio del sur de Valencia.  La mujer tenía los diente cariados.  Sus hijos no asistían a clases: no había escuela a kilómetros de su casa de cartón.  El barrio no disfrutaba de aguas servidas.  ¿Por qué esta mujer, pudiendo pedir tantas otras cosas, solo pedía que asfaltaran las calles?

M.J.  siguió investigando y empezó a encontrar un patrón en las respuestas del barrio: en su mayoría, la gente pedía que asfaltaran las calles y no mencionaban otras necesidades urgentes.  La muerte le sorprendió de forma prematura y nunca pudimos conocer las conclusiones de su indagación.  Sin embargo, alcanzó a contarnos su hipótesis del trabajo, una hipótesis que se originó a partir de una idea que le explicó alguien del mismo barrio: la gente pide que le asfalten las calles porque sabe que eso es lo que la Alcaldía está dispuesta a hacer, no porque sea una prioridad en sus necesidades.  De modo que, bajo esta lógica, pedir soluciones a problemas estructurales sería inútil.

La gente no pedía aquello que sabía que nunca le darían.

Entonces, preguntarle a la gente qué quiere del Gobierno no es una forma adecuada de elucidar las preferencias de la gente cuando la gente sabe que aquel no resolverá sus verdaderos problemas.

Cartea creía que los programas de asfaltado eran un excelente mecanismo de corrupción que los gobernantes estaban prestos a ofrecer y a implementar.  La gente entonces terminaba pidiendo aquello que beneficiaba a quienes se apropiaban de los recursos públicos, mientras que sus hijos seguían sin escuelas, sus dientes con caries y sus casas rodeadas por aguas negras.

No es que desconociesen lo que necesitaban: es que entraban en la lógica circular de pedir lo único que estaban dispuestos a darle.

Las llamadas “protestas del pernil” recuerdan el trabajo de M.J.  Cartea en los barrios del sur de Valencia, a mediados de los años noventa.  Gente protestando solo por aquello que creen que pueden darle.  Y también saben que quienes hagan más ruido quizás reciban un poco más.

Protestas distributivas con potenciales ganancias a corto plazo, pero con los problemas estructurales ahí, agravándose.

Y todos saben que no serán solucionados, no pueden ser solucionados, con una ración de pernil.

Que no se proteste con la misma vehemencia por otros temas puede decirnos dos cosas: o no hay esperanza de que la protesta tenga resultados o hay un profundo miedo a las consecuencias de protestar.

No son opciones excluyentes.

El miedo y la desesperanza son mecanismos muy eficaces de control.  Hasta que dejan de ser.

ÁNGEL ALAYÓN / Prodavinci

Fuente:
https://dolartoday.com/psicologia-de-las-masas-con-tantas-necesidades-por-que-la-gente-protesta-por-un-pernil/

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